Life History Strategy. Eine relevante Variable soziologischer Forschung

Manfred Hammerl

Abstract


Kein Lebewesen kann auf unbegrenzte Ressourcen oder eine unbegrenzte Lebensspanne zurückgreifen. Somit gilt es begrenzte Ressourcen in begrenzter Zeit möglichst optimal einzusetzen. Basierend auf der Life History Theory, welche die alters- bzw. lebensphasenspezifischen Muster der Reifung, Reproduktion (und damit verbundener Aufwendungen) – ja grundsätzlich des Überlebens bzw. Sterbens – bei allen Spezies beschreibt meint man mit dem Konzept der Life History Strategy (LHS) die je spezifische Strategie des Ressourceneinsatzes, der Reproduktion, der Investition in die Nachkommen, usw. Man unterscheidet dabei langsame (K-Strategie) von schnellen (r-Strategie) LHS. Menschen zählen zu jenen Spezies mit den langsamsten LHS, d.h. geringe Nachkommenzahl (lange Jahre der Fürsorge), lange Reproduktionszyklen, lange Lebensspanne, langsame Entwicklung, lange Lernphasen, usw. Dennoch gibt es innerhalb unserer Spezies eine hohe Variabilität die LHS betreffend. Voland nennt uns „flexible K-Strategen“ und bezieht sich damit auf unsere Anpassungsfähigkeit an gegebene Umweltbedingungen. Welche LHS zur Ausprägung gelangt ist u.a. eine Frage der „ökologischen Bühne“ (Voland 2013), im Falle des Menschen also der Umweltbedingungen (soziale wie natürliche Umwelt), v.a. in der Kindheit und Jugend, also den prägendsten Phasen unserer Entwicklung. Eine variable, unsichere Umwelt führt dabei zu schnellerer LHS, eine stabile, sichere Umwelt zu langsamerer LHS. Der vorliegende Beitrag führt in das Konzept der LHS ein und gibt einen Überblick über bisherige – soziologisch relevante – Forschung aus der evolutionären Psychologie. Dies geschieht aus der Überzeugung heraus, dass eine Berücksichtigung der LHS in sozialwissenschaftlichen Überlegungen und deren Erfassung in empirischen Studien zu einem erweiterten Verständnis soziologischer Phänomene beitragen kann. Vieles (bspw. Eingehen vs. Vermeiden von Risiken (auch deviantes Verhalten), frühe vs. späte Partnerwahl bzw. Fortpflanzung) lässt sich damit als evolutionär rationale (Deep Rationality) Verhaltensweise begreifen und somit besser verstehen. Den Abschluss des Beitrags bildet eine Diskussion etablierter Messinstrumente (biodemografische Indikatoren, SES, Mini-K) zum Einsatz in empirischen sozialwissenschaftlichen Studien.


Schlagworte


K-Faktor; K-Selektion; Life History Strategy; Life History Theory; Mini-K; r-Selektion

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Literaturhinweise


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